Фотография Камин из облицовочного кирпича

Construction Materials. Brick.

The explanatory dictionary gives the following definition of brick – this is an artificial stone, which is produced in the form of baked clay bars. Brick is used for the construction of various buildings.

Depending on the production technology used and the composition of its components, the brick is divided into silicate and ceramic. Silicate bricks are made from lime, sand and special additives and baked in special autoclave ovens, while ceramic bricks are made from clay and its mixtures by baking in a furnace at high temperatures. By adding special pigments to the silicate brick composition, it is possible to achieve its various colors and shades. Silicate and ceramic bricks have different state standards and differ in physical and technical characteristics.

Ceramic brick is produced ordinary (or general construction), front (or facing), as well as a special oven. Ordinary building bricks are used for the construction of load-bearing structures, various rough masonry, followed by plastering. The front or facing brick has a smooth and even surface structure, a uniform color shade. In most cases, the front brick is made hollow, which gives it high thermal insulation characteristics.

Facing bricks are produced both with a smooth and textured (with a pattern) structure. It can, has both a standard and a shaped profile.

Furnace bricks are produced in various sizes. When laying out the furnace part of fireplaces or stoves, it is necessary to use a special stove or fireclay brick, which is intended primarily for use at high (over 1000 ° C) temperatures. It has a sandy yellow color with a granular internal structure.

Before starting construction, you just need to know what kind of brick, what type and for what purposes should be used. This is important so that you can optimally calculate the necessary costs for construction work, and not overpay for an unnecessary type of brick.

Ceramic bricks are produced in a standard size – 250x120x65 mm. In addition to the standard single thickness (65 mm), it can also be one and a half (88 mm). On sale you can also find a special ceramic stone of larger sizes – 250x120x138 mm.

The color of ceramic bricks is directly related to the composition of the clay used. Most of the ceramic bricks produced have red-burning clays in their composition, which, after firing, give it a classic red color. In addition, there is a brick that is produced using white-burning clay, which gives the brick a yellow or white color. The special pigment additives used simply give the brick a change in its shade. All colors and shades of bricks must strictly comply with the relevant GOSTs.

The front ceramic brick, depending on the presence of voids in it, is divided into solid and hollow. The produced ceramic stone always has a hollow structure. Hollow brick, which has better thermal insulation characteristics compared to solid brick, gives a smaller wall thickness during masonry work. In addition, due to the lower specific gravity, it exerts a lower load on the foundation, which allows additional savings on its arrangement. In addition to the indisputable advantages, hollow bricks also have some disadvantages. If during masonry work mortar enters the voids (holes) of bricks or blocks, then the hollow brick loses a significant part of its thermal insulation characteristics, it turns into a “cold” brick. In order to prevent this, it is necessary to use a solution of the appropriate viscosity or select a brick with smaller diameter internal holes.

At present, a brick with a porous brick structure has become widespread. Due to the high porosity of the material, such a brick has increased heat and sound insulation characteristics. This type of brick is called porous.

Brick is primarily a structural wall material. It must have a certain strength and reliability. The main indicator of its strength is the brand of brick. The brand of brick is indicated by the letter “M” with a numerical value indicating the maximum load that the brick can take on 1 cm2 of its area. So, for example, the brand of brick M150 indicates that the brick can take a load of 150 kg per 1 cm2 of its area. All bricks produced are mainly graded from M75 to M300. Another of the most important characteristics of the reliability and durability of a brick is its frost resistance. Frost resistance indicates the number of so-called freeze-thaw cycles that a brick can withstand without destroying its structure and breaking its shape. Frost resistance is indicated by the Latin letter “F” with a numerical value indicating a given number of cycles. Domestic brick, as a rule, is produced with a frost resistance index of at least 3