This article will discuss the most important element of the building, the reliability and quality of which largely determine the integrity and durability of the entire structure of the building or structure.
We would like to warn you, as developers, against hasty decisions when choosing the type of foundation, its design and materials. We would like to warn you, as developers, against hasty decisions when choosing the type of foundation, its design and materials.
The foundation is the foundation of the house, the stronger and more reliable this foundation, the lower the operating costs for repairing the entire building, restoring the functionality of its individual elements, and, in the end, the longer the life of the entire house. Every single structural element of the house transfers the load, roof, ceilings, walls, etc. to the foundation. Therefore, the level of operating costs and the duration of operation of the house directly depend on the proper stability and reliability of the underground part of the building.
When choosing a construction method and the type of foundation used, it is necessary to take into account the quality of the soil, the bearing capacity of the foundation, the magnitude of the planned load, as well as the geological and technological features of the construction. First of all, it is necessary to make soil samples on the site being built up, according to the samples of which the schemes of vertical sections of pits (wells) are drawn up, the types and density of soils, their depths are determined, their full characteristics are given. A geodetic survey of the area is also carried out, which makes it possible to determine the height of the site above the horizon, to identify relief features. Based on these results, a decision should be made on the advisability of using a natural foundation or the need for its additional strengthening.
Some of the determining factors when choosing the type of foundation are:
- the type of the planned house and its number of floors (brick, wooden, panel or frame, built of foam concrete or ceramic blocks, one-story, 2-story or more), which primarily determine its maximum weight and its planned pressure on the foundation, and, therefore, and on the ground
- type of soil of the built-up area,
- the depth of seasonal freezing of the soil,
- site topography,
- groundwater level in the area.
Depending on the method of resting on the ground, all foundations are divided into slab, columnar and tape. Depending on the design, the foundations are divided into pile, slab and tape (prefabricated or monolithic). In turn, monolithic types of foundations are divided, depending on the building material, into those made of reinforced concrete, rubble concrete, concrete or rubble.
Prefabricated monolithic foundations are built exclusively from blocks manufactured in specialized factories. One of the varieties of prefabricated-monolithic foundation is slab. It is made in the form of a monolithic reinforced concrete slab located under the entire planned area of the building. It has high costs for preparatory land work and high costs for building material. It is best used in the construction of small houses. In such houses, the foundation slab of the foundation of the house is the base of the floor of the premises.
The advantage of monolithic foundations over prefabricated ones is the fact that during their installation there is no need to involve special lifting equipment, which greatly simplifies and reduces the cost of its construction.
Basically, for the construction of low-rise residential buildings, it is recommended to use rigid columnar or strip foundations, which are made from building materials with excellent compressive strength characteristics (rubble stone, rubble concrete, concrete).
Strip foundations are called foundations with a flat horizontal sole. It has a kind of reinforced concrete strip running around the entire perimeter of the building. This “tape” must be laid under all external and internal walls of the building, and it is necessary to maintain the same thickness of the cross section along its entire perimeter. It is perfect for those developers who plan to build a garage, basement or cellar at the base of the house.
Pillar foundations have a structure in the form of separate poured foundation columns or columns, on which horizontal beams are laid, which directly perceive the loads from the walls. It is quite reliable, economical during construction, does not require additional waterproofing measures, however, it should be used exclusively for light types of houses (wooden or frame).
Also, buildings can be based on a pile foundation, made in the form of piles sunk into the ground, made of reinforced concrete, concrete, and sometimes even wood. Pile types of foundations are indispensable in cases of building houses on unstable soils. This foundation design is ideal for large-sized building